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Female Infertility: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

by Aveda Ayur 17 Feb 2024
Female Infertility: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Female infertility is one of the growing concerns in today’s female population. The major types of female infertility are primary and secondary infertility. Primary infertility is when a woman has never achieved a pregnancy. On the other hand, secondary pregnancy is when a woman has achieved at least one pregnancy but faces difficulty to get pregnant again.  The causes of primary infertility includes ovulation problems and secondary infertility is mostly age, weight and disorder or disease related. About one-third of cases of infertility globally are caused by female causes, and the disease affects between 10% and 15% of couples.

*Read till the end to have all knowledge about Female infertility.*

Key Takeaways:

  • Worldwide, female factors account for approximately one-third of cases of infertility, which affects approximately 10-15% of couples.
  • Hormonal imbalances, age-related decrease, endometriosis, fallopian tube problems, ovulation disorders, and lifestyle choices are some of the causes of female infertility.
  • Period irregularities, pelvic discomfort, and hormone abnormalities are possible symptoms.
  • Infertility treatment and improving the likelihood of a successful pregnancy depend heavily on early intervention.

What is Female Infertility?

Female infertility, as mentioned above, is an inability of a woman to get pregnant even after trying for a particular time span, typically one year after unprotected sex. If you are 35 years and older than you have 6 months to try and if you are below the age of 35 years then you have one year for the same. Having regular sex without birth control is a sign that you are trying to become pregnant. If a person has a medical problem or uterine factor infertility, they may be diagnosed earlier.

Causes of Female Infertility

  • Ovulation Disorders:  A woman's ability to conceive may be impacted by ovulation issues, such as hormone imbalances, PCOS, thyroid conditions, or premature ovarian failure.
  • Problems with the uterus or the cervical region:  Anomalies in the uterus, such as congenital deformities, fibroids, polyps, might obstruct implantation or limit the sperm's ability to reach the egg.
  • Fallopian Tube Damage or Blockage:  A number of illnesses, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), endometriosis, and past pelvic surgeries, can cause the fallopian tubes to become clogged or scarred, which will make it more difficult to conceive.
  • Endometriosis:  Fertility get adversely affected by this condition's potential to produce scarring, inflammation and interference with the reproductive organs' capacity to operate.
  • Age-related Factors: As women age, lower-quality eggs, fewer, are typically generated, which leads to a normal decline in their fertility.
  • Pelvic Adhesions: Diseases which pelvic inflammatory disease or previous surgeries can cause scar tissue to form between internal organs.
  • Lifestyle Factors: Smoking, binge drinking, drug use, obesity, poor diet, and high levels of stress are just a few of the behaviours that can negatively impact fertility.

Symptoms of Female Infertility

Symptoms of Female Infertility
  • Irregular menstrual cycles: Consistently irregular periods or the absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) can be a sign of hormonal imbalances or other issues affecting ovulation.
  • Painful periods: Severe menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea) or pelvic pain during menstruation could indicate conditions such as endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can affect fertility.
  • Abnormal bleeding: Unusually heavy or light menstrual bleeding, spotting between periods, or bleeding after intercourse might be associated with conditions that can impact fertility, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or uterine fibroids.
  • Hormonal changes: Symptoms such as excess facial or body hair (hirsutism), acne, or changes in libido can indicate hormonal imbalances that may affect fertility.
  • Pain during intercourse: Pain or discomfort during sex (dyspareunia) can be caused by conditions such as endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, or vaginal infections, which might affect fertility.
  • Obesity or extreme underweight: Being significantly overweight or underweight can disrupt hormone levels and ovulation, affecting fertility.
  • Previous reproductive issues: A history of miscarriages, ectopic pregnancies, or pelvic surgery can suggest potential fertility problems.
  • Age-related factors: Fertility declines with age, especially after the mid-30s, so women over this age who have been trying to conceive for several months without success may want to consult a healthcare provider sooner rather than later.

Treatment Options for Female Infertility

Treatment Options for Female Infertility
  • Fertility Medications: Women with ovulation difficulties can induce ovulation using ovulation-inducing drugs like letrozole or clomiphene citrate.
  • Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART): Methods such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) entail fertilizing eggs externally with sperm and then inserting the fertilized embryos into the uterus.
  • Lifestyle Adjustments: Reproductive results can be enhanced by leading a healthy lifestyle that includes eating a balanced diet, getting regular exercise, abstaining from tobacco and excessive alcohol, and controlling stress.
  • Surgery: To increase fertility, surgical procedures can be used to treat conditions such endometriosis, uterine anomalies, and tubal obstructions.
  • Donor Eggs or Gestational Carriers: These are possible possibilities if there are serious problems with the quality of the eggs or uterus.
  • Ayurveda: Ayurveda is an ancient holistic science which has many secrets hidden in its depths. All we need to do is search and find. Ayurveda herbs like kanchnaar, lodhra, shivlingi, putrajivak, shatavari, Ashwagandha, Triphala, Hing, Kutki, Haridra, Kust, Gaudugdha, Bala, Neel Kamal, khirvidari and many others helps in improving egg quality, nourish the reproductive system, tone uterus muscles, remove uterus adhesions, regulate menstrual cycle, reduce inflammation, dissolves cyst and is used in many gynecological problems including infertility.

How can I prevent infertility?

Most forms of infertility in women are unpredictable and preventable. With changes to your lifestyle, you might be able to manage some of the risk factors that lead to infertility. Some instances are:

  • Lowering the amount of alcohol consumed.   
  • Give up smoking.
  • Keeping your weight at a healthy level.
  • Creating a regimen that works for you.
  • Consuming an abundant diet of fruits and vegetables.
  • Aim for a minimum of seven hours of sleep every night.


Female infertility is a complex issue with many underlying causes, symptoms, and treatment options. Addressing infertility and improving the likelihood of conception require prompt medical examination and investigation of suitable therapy alternatives. Many people who struggle with infertility can now have a family and achieve their goals because of developments in reproductive medicine and supporting treatments.

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